PHP-FPM is an Apache module that brings much better performance (approximately 300%) for PHP script processing compared to other preceding modules like suPHP, CG or DSO (Dynamically Shared Object). FPM stands for FastCGI Process Manager.

(Illustration of PHP-FPM and its Components in Web Architecture)
(Illustration of PHP-FPM and its Components in Web Architecture)

The major change in the management of PHP processing comes with the introduction of Workers Processes which can be spawned from a Master Process that receives the request. The processing happens in parallel then and the output is served back to the Web Server (Apache/NGINX). The spawning of Worker Processes happens in three ways:

  1. Static: Opted for high-traffic sites where a fixed allocation of Workers will reduce computing for Worker-allocation. Incorrect configuration with respect to available server capacity may result in timeout or gateway error (403 or 504 HTTP status codes).
  2. Dynamic: Opted for sites where traffic can vary and multiple sites compete for resource allocation.
  3. On-demand: Opted for low-traffic sites.

The important feature of PHP-FPM is an adaptive process spawning where Workers are dynamically spawned and killed on-demand.

The settings for PHP-FPM is important for good performance of the site(s) hosted on your VM (Virtual Machine) – Request limit, Timeout limit and Workers limit. You can install and run PHP-FPM on any VM with at least 2GB RAM or at least more than 30MB RAM per site on the VM. All Batoi Virtual Machines come with PHP-FPM support.

Further Learning:

  1. The PHP-FPM Home Page:
  2. The Official PHP Documentation:
  3. cPanel Management Guide:
  4. The Official Guide for PHP-FPM with NGINX:


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here