The democratic and independent-minded British decided to honour their own currency, own trade, and above all, their own border. In fact, 23 June 2016 triggered the reversal of the great reunification effort in Europe since the World War II.

The skeptics of European Union (EU) are happy now. They claim about the beginning of the process to return to the past glory of their own regional bordered nations. Of course, the referendum is not the sole criterion for Britain to exit (Brexit) from the European Union. The British Parliament needs to create an Act to enable the EU to invoke Article 50 (the Lisbon Treaty) to initiate the process of separation. Then the long process of negotiation for trade deals to replace the common trading framework may take years.

However, the impact of Brexit is much larger. This may be understood from two perspectives. The unification drive and the common platform for countries in Europe provided a much larger and stronger bloc at the global level to negotiate and protect their interests. This may be more relevant in view of other regional trade blocs across the Pacific and Asia.

The second and perhaps more pessimistic perspective is about the consequences of fully independent countries in Europe, and of the animosity they carry through their historical relationships. A replay of bloody competitions among different countries, though seem remote, cannot be ruled out.


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